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你知道吗?今天是一个神奇的节日!


2月2日,冰雪仍然覆盖着大地, 但此时,春天已经悄悄开始了——早在五月节之前,小草已经发芽,新叶已经开始生长。“圣烛节”有一个异教化的名称叫Imbolc,字面意思是“在妈妈肚子里”。在地球母亲的子宫里,孕育着春天。


美国人民有许多不放假的奇葩节日,土拨鼠日(Groundhog Day)就是其中之一。细数中国传统节日,全国人民都会热情欢庆、高度参与,不过命名方式也是按时令来,如“端午节”,俗称“龙舟节”、“粽子节”;“中秋节”,俗称“月饼节”。“元旦”、“春节”,这些节日正式的节日名称都是时令性的,并不会把从事活动的主角放到名字里。美国人民就直接多了,比方今天要讲的这个节日,官方名字就叫“土拨鼠日”,想必土拨鼠就是这个日子的主角了。那人们究竟是要去打猎呢,还是烤来吃呢?还是捉一群土拨鼠来比赛钻洞呢?


万能的维基百科出场——

以下英文文字出自维基百科词条Groundhog Day,中文出自邱老师:

Groundhog Day (Pennsylvania German: Grund`sau dåk, Grundsaudaag, Grundsow Dawg, Murmeltiertag; Nova Scotia: Daks Day[1]) is a popular tradition celebrated in the United States and Canada on February 2. It derives from the Pennsylvania Dutch superstition that if a groundhog (Deitsch: Grundsau, Grunddax, Dax) emerging from its burrow on this day sees a shadow due to clear weather, it will retreat to its den and winter will persist for six more weeks, and if it does not see its shadow because of cloudiness, spring will arrive early. While the tradition remains popular in modern times, studies have found no consistent correlation between a groundhog seeing its shadow or not and the subsequent arrival time of spring-like weather.[2]

每年2月2日,在美国和加拿大地区,人们都会庆祝“土拨鼠日“。这一广受欢迎的传统节日源自宾夕法尼亚州德裔1流传的一种民间说法:如果这一天,土拨鼠从树洞里钻出来,发现是晴天,土拨鼠可以看到自己的影子,它就会钻回树洞里,因为冬天还有六周才结束;如果是阴天,它看不到自己的影子,那么春天就会提前到来。时至今日,这一传统仍然保留,但尚无研究发现土拨鼠是否看见自己的影子和随之而来的春季气候之间有何必然联系。


注1:这里的Pennsylvania Dutch一不小心就会翻成“宾夕法尼亚州荷兰人”,其实是指宾州的德意志人(Pennsylvania Deutsche),因为美国佬发音不准,把德意志念成了荷兰人,因此误传。


The weather lore was brought from German-speaking areas where the badger (German: Dachs) is the forecasting animal. This appears to be an enhanced version of the lore that clear weather on Candlemas forebodes a prolonged winter.

这种预测节气的说法源自美国德语区,只不过最初预测的主角是獾(德语:Dachs)。“土拨鼠日”的传统进一步强化了圣烛节2若是晴天则意味着冬季漫长的说法。

注2:圣烛节是欧洲的节日,与“土拨鼠日”在同一天,都是2月2日。


以下是百度百科关于圣烛节的解释:圣烛节(Kyndelmisse),又称“圣母行洁净礼日”或“献主节”等,是在2月2日,即圣母玛利亚产后40天带着耶稣往耶路撒冷去祈祷的纪念日。

来历

圣烛节是春天的开始,听起来似乎很不可思议。2月2日冰雪仍然覆盖着大地,就算冰雪已经融化,天气仍然是又湿又冷的,这是一年中最沉闷的日子了。但这确是异教灯节的最好时机。这时春天已经悄悄开始了,早在五月节之前,小草已经发芽,新叶已经开始生长。

“Candlemas”显然是这个节日的基督化的名称,异教化的名称则Imbolc和Oimelc。`Imbolc`的字面意思是“在妈妈肚子里”。在地球母亲的子宫里,有许多平常人所看不见的东西。`Oimelc`意为母羊的奶,因为这是牧羊的季节。

这个节日也叫做Brigit`s Day`,为了纪念爱尔兰的女神Brigit。她的神殿在古代爱尔兰的首都Kildare,19个女祭司为她看守着永恒的圣火。她是火神,也是工匠之神,也是诗歌和治疗之神。有时这三重性也被认为是三个不同的神,另外两个是她的妹妹,她们的名字也是Brigit。(别称是Bride)罗马天主教会没能轻易把这个女神定位恶魔,所以只能反过来把她封为圣人。他们还相爱尔兰农民把她“解释”为一个很早以前就来到了Emerald岛的一个传教士,但她所创造的奇迹还是让人们相信她是一个女神。

现在,这个节日基本都会和天气有关。美国人把它定为“土拨鼠日”,如果土拨鼠在这一天能看见自己的影子,那么将来的六个星期都不会有好天气。英国人认为,如果这一天是晴天的话,那么一年中就会有两个冬天了。四个季节的第一天都可以做相反的天气预测,四个至日则可以直接预测天气。

The Groundhog Day ceremony held at Punxsutawney in western Pennsylvania, centering around a semi-mythical groundhog named Punxsutawney Phil, has become the most attended. Grundsow Lodges in Pennsylvania Dutch Country in the southeast part of the state celebrate them as well. Other cities in the United States and Canada have also adopted the event.

在“土拨鼠日”这天,美国和加拿大的许多城市都会举行庆祝活动。其中最盛大的要数宾州西部彭格苏尔维尼市,人们围绕着一只名叫“菲尔”的土拨鼠3,宛如众星捧月。宾州东南边荷兰村的Grundsow小屋也会举行庆祝活动。

The 1993 film Groundhog Day helped boost recognition of the custom, and the celebration has spread even further afield. In 2009, Quebec began to mark the day (Canadian French: Jour de la Marmotte) with its own groundhog.

1993年电影《土拨鼠之日》上映,扩大了“土拨鼠日”的知名度,这一节日习俗也得以广为流传。

注3:译者还搜到了关于土拨鼠菲尔的一些有趣的新闻,最有名的要数“神鼠”菲尔误判春天,被俄亥俄州检察官起诉的故事了。相关词条信息如下:

In March 2013, a Butler County, Ohio, prosecutor named Michael Gmoser made international headlines after issuing an indictment against the groundhog by e-mail calling for the death penalty for “misrepresentation of early spring, an Unclassified Felony, and against the peace and dignity of the State of Ohio”.[8][9] On that day, the maximum temperature of the day within the region was close to a record low, with snow having fallen, and temperatures were predicted to remain below seasonal averages for at least the next several days.[10] No such indictment was made against Ohio prediction groundhog Buckeye Chuck, who also failed to see his shadow.[11] The prosecutor later stated that he would consider a pardon because Phil`s handler (Bill Deeley, president of the Punxsutawney Groundhog Club`s Inner Circle) was taking the blame for the mistake, “because he failed to correctly interpret Phil`s `groundhog-ese`”. Deeley noted that the indictment had “generated more publicity than a $10,000 ad campaign.”[12]

2013年3月,俄亥俄周的一名检察官Michael Gmoser上了国际新闻头条,他写了一封电子邮件,状告宾州的土拨鼠菲尔,罪名是“误报春来早,属‘未分类重罪’,有损俄亥俄州的和平与尊严”,要求法庭判处死刑。那日的当地最高气温接近历史最低记录,又下了雪,预计未来几天的气温将维持在平均温度以下。虽然俄亥俄州本州的土拨鼠Buckeye Chuck那天也没看到自己的影子,但却没有收到同样的指控。事后该检察官声称,他可以选择原谅,因为是土拨鼠菲尔的管理人(Bill Deeley,彭格苏尔维尼市土拨鼠俱乐部内围主席)承担了过错,“因为他没能准确翻译菲尔的‘土拨鼠语’”。Deeley注意到,这一纸诉状受到的关注度甚至超过了斥资10000美元的系列广告。

Other locations其他地方的习俗

Banner of Grundsow Lodsh Nummer Sivva (Groundhog Lodge Number Seven), of Pennsburg, Pennsylvania

The Slumbering Groundhog Lodge, which was formed in 1907, has carried out the ceremonies that take place in Quarryville, Pennsylvania.[21] It used to be a contending rival to Punxsutawney over the Groundhog Day fame. It employs a taxidermic specimen (stuffed woodchuck).[13]

1907年,在宾夕法尼亚州阔里维尔镇,修建了“沉睡的土拨鼠之屋“,从此这里每年都举行庆祝,名声一度赶超彭格苏尔维尼市。主角是一只土拨鼠标本。

有机会可以去参观一下!

In southeastern Pennsylvania, Groundhog Lodges (Grundsow Lodges) celebrate the holiday with fersommlinge,[22] social events in which food is served, speeches are made, and one or more g`spiel (plays or skits) are performed for entertainment. The Pennsylvania German dialect is the only language spoken at the event, and those who speak English pay a penalty, usually in the form of a nickel, dime, or quarter per word spoken, with the money put into a bowl in the center of the table.[23]

在宾夕法尼亚州东南部的“土拨鼠小屋”(德语:Grundsow Lodges)会举行名为(德语)的庆祝活动,期间提供食物,人们会做演讲,还会表演一两个或多个g`spiel(戏剧或小品)。在活动上只能说一种名为宾夕法尼亚德语的德语方言,说英语的要受罚,通常是每说一个英文单词就罚5美分、10美分或者25美分,把钱投进桌子中央的碗中。

看来想在宾州混,光英语666还不够,德语也得好啊!


In Midwest America, Sun Prairie, Wisconsin is the self-proclaimed “Groundhog Capital of the World”.[24] This title taken in response to The Punxsutawney Spirit 1952 newspaper article describing Sun Prairie as a “remote two cow village buried somewhere in the wilderness…”[25] In 2015, Jimmy the groundhog bit the ear of Mayor Jon Freund [26] and the story quickly went viral worldwide. The next day a mayoral proclamation absolved Jimmy XI of any wrongdoing.[27]

在美国中西部威斯康辛州的太阳大草原(Sun Prairie)自诩“土拨鼠世界之都”。之所以给自己冠上这个头衔,是为了回应1952年《彭格苏尔维尼市精神报》的一篇文章对太阳大草原的描述:“埋葬在荒野的某个地方,一个偏远的村子,有两头牛……” 2015年,当地的土拨鼠吉米咬了市长Jon Freund的耳朵,故事很快就传遍全球。第二天市长就发表声明,赦免吉米的一切罪行。